What Predicts Student Achievement


Critical decisions about how to use their time and energy have a great impact on students’ achievement.

These decisions can affect students’ opportunities to learn the skills needed to perform well on standardized tests in reading and math.

High-achieving students spend significantly more time (hours each week) than low achievers:

Attending school and doing structured learning activities.

Engaged in academic lessons in the classroom and in literacy-promoting activities out of school.

Taking part in such “high-yield activities” as reading, writing, and studying, and in such “enrichment activities” as hobbies, playing games, and talking.

Sleeping and taking care of their health.

Low-achieving students spend more time than higher-achieving students.

Engaged in unstructured leisure activities, such as “hanging out,” talking on the phone, playing games, watching TV, and relaxing.

Doing chores, traveling to and from school (and other places), and working for pay.

Some people are of the view that these factors had a far greater effect

  • “The (mother’s) educational level,
  • Parents’ age,
  • And economic circumstances combined”.
Academic success (school test scores) is more likely to happen when;

Students spend at least 15 hours per week with teachers doing high-quality learning activities.

Students spend 8–15 hours a week in out-of-school learning activities.

Out-of-school activities are guided by adults with high standards for achievement.

Students are focused and engaged when taking part in out-of-school learning activities.

Students know how to study, plan, and complete projects, and have access to libraries and reference materials.

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