Enlighten exam, Biology practical questions and answers (section 4).


Specimen A – Opuntia

State the division of specimen A.

  • Specimen A – Division Angiospermophyta.

Give the habitat of specimen A with two reasons.


  • Savanna region
  • Desert/arid region


  • Possess succulent stem to store water.
  • Presence of a waxy thick cuticle to prevent excessive water loss.
  • Leaves are modified/reduced into spines.
  • Presence of sunken stomata to reduce the rate of transpiration.
  • Stem is green (contains chlorophyll) to aid in photosynthesis.

Make a drawing 8cm – 10cm long of specimen A and label it fully.

A label drawing of specimen A

Specimen B – Moss

Specimen C – Sida acuta

Specimen D – Rhizopus (bread mold).

State the phylum/division of specimens B and D. Give two reasons in each case.

Specimen B.

Division Bryophyta


  • Have a thalloid body.
  • The gametophyte is dominant.
  • Presence of leaf-like whorl.

Specimen D.

Phylum Zygomycota


  • It is non-septate
  • Sporangium is borne on sporangiophore
  • Zygospore is formed on the gametangia.

Give the class of specimens B and C.

  • Specimen B – Class Musci
  • Specimen C – Class Dicotyledoneae

Give three observable differences between specimens B and C.

Specimen B

Specimen C

Have no cuticle. Have cuticle.
Possess no root. Possess root.
Presence of rhizoid. Rhizoid absent.
Gametophyte is dominant. Sporophyte is dominant.
It is small. It is large.
Presence of capsule. Capsule absent.
Leave absent. Leave present.

State three economic importance of specimen D.

  • It causes food spoilage or contamination.
  • It improves soil fertility through decomposition.
  • Cause infections in plants.
  • It also removes waste from the environment.

Give two ecological importance of specimen B.

  • They serve as a source of food (they are producers).
  • Source of fuel
  • They also check soil erosion.
  • Causes weathering which leads to soil formation.
  • Source of oxygen through photosynthesis.
  • They also improve the moisture content of the soil.
  • Moss are also plant parasites

State how each of the following affects the growth of specimen D.


  • Suitable temperature enhances the activities of digestive enzymes.


  • Moisture activates the digestive enzymes to digest food (organic matter) for the specimen to absorb the end product.

Give three observable differences between specimens B and D.

Specimen B

Specimen D

Green in colour Dark-brown in colour
Relatively large (macroscopic) Relatively small (microscopic)
Presence leaf-like structure Leaf-like structure absent
Presence of capsule Absent of capsule

State two similarities between specimens B and D.

  • Both possess rhizoids
  • Presence of spores in both specimens
  • No vascular tissue in both specimen

Remove one of the leaves of specimen C and make a drawing 8cm – 10cm long of its upper surface.

Drawing of the upper surface of leaf of specimen C

Specimen E – Cockroach

Specimen F – Locust/grasshopper

Name the order of specimens E and F. Give three observable features of each order.

  • Specimen E – Order Dictyoptera

Observable features:

  • Presence of biting mouthparts.
  • Possess leathery forewings.
  • Also, possess equally developed appendages.


  • Specimen F – Order Orthoptera.

Observable features:

  • Possess chewing mouthparts.
  • Possess a pair of leathery forewings.
  • Presence of a pair of membranous hindwings.
  • Possess a pair of long hind legs.

Name the habitat of specimens E and F.

Specimen E.

  • Dark cardboard, kitchen, stores or toilets.
  • Crack walls

Specimen F.

  • Grassland/farm/vegetation.

Give four observable differences between specimens E and F.

Specimen E

Specimen F

It is dorsoventrally flattened. It is laterally flattened
Possess long antennae. Possess short antennae
The head is elongated. The head is V-shaped.
Brown in colour Light brown or green in colour
Equally developed legs. Longer and larger hind legs.
Ovipositor absent. Possess ovipositor.

Name four observable similarities between specimens E and F.

  • Possess leathery forewings and membranous hindwings.
  • Presence of chewing mouthparts.
  • A pair of compound eyes.
  • A pair of antennae present in both specimens
  • Presence of three pair of thoracic appendages.
  • Presence of spiracles.

State four economic importance of specimen F.

  • Pest of crops.
  • Source of food.
  • Destroys vegetation.
  • Vector of plant pathogens.
  • It is also used as bait in fishing.
  • Cause financial loss when controlling.

Make a drawing 8cm – 10cm long of the lateral view of one of the hind legs of specimen E.

Drawing of the lateral view of the hind leg of specimen E


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